This paper focuses on the affects of two variables when learning a new bimanual coordination pattern; previous experiences and augmented feedback techniques. The main aim of this study is to acquire the new coordination pattern 135˚ relative phase.
Two different types of augmented feedback were compared, visual pursuit tracking and terminal feedback. Terminal augmented feedback consists of a static target lissajous figure combined with actual movement after each trial. Pursuit tracking consists of a static trace of the target lissajous, a dynamic trace of the learner’s movement during the trials and a target moving around the lissajous figure in time with the auditory metronome of 1Hz.
Participants practiced either 90˚ or 135˚ relative phase in two learning sessions and were randomly assigned to a group:
Sessions one and two:
Group 1 – practiced 90˚ relative phase with pursuit tracking
Group 2 – practiced 135˚ relative phase with pursuit tracking
Group 3 – practiced 90˚ relative phase with terminal feedback
Group 4 – practiced 135˚ relative phase with terminal feedback
In session three all four groups performed 30 trials of 135˚ lasting 20 seconds using the same feedback as in previous sessions.
Participants grasped two linear sliding devices parallel to the table and displacements were calculated. Two monitors were used to display the feedback depending on which group you were in.
Generally speaking when trying to perform a novel task most people are biased towards anti phase 180˚. In this case the groups that practiced the 90˚ pattern performed the transfer 135˚ pattern more poorly and were strongly biased towards the newly learned 90˚ pattern. During transfer the pursuit tracking groups performed with a higher mean relative phase (129.6) than the terminal feedback groups (114.9). Following two sessions of practice 90˚ pattern, performance of the transfer pattern was facilitated by pursuit tracking to a much greater extent than terminal feedback. It was suggested that pursuit tracking feedback encouraged the learner to focus on matching the lissajous figures rather than their moving limbs. This supports Wulf and Prinz (2001) who stated that performance and learning benefits if the learner focuses on the environmental effects rather than the movement itself.
WULF, G., & W. PRINZ. 2001. Directing attention to movement effects enhances learning: A review. Psychonomic bulletin & review. 8, pp. 648-660.
HURLEY, S.R., & T.D. LEE. 2006. The influence of augmented feedback and prior learning on the acquisition of a new bimanual coordination pattern. Human movement science. 25, pp.339-348.